STEM Q & A

In STEM class in round, we learn about Acidic and Basic. We read and read in CK 12 about pH and answer a lots of question there. Not just answering the question and read, we also did some experiment to test and to learn more about Acid and Base. Today I want show you some question and I had answered in CK 12 and here are the Question. Remember number 1 with index is the answer. 

  1. What is acids? Give one use of Acids?
    1. Acids is an ionic compound that produce positive hydrogen ion when it dissolve in water. Acids used for battery, firework…etc.
  2. What is a bases? Name a common product that contain base?
    1. Bases is an ionic compound that produce negative hydroxide ion when it dissolve in water. Bleach, Baking soda, Soap…etc.
  3. Outline how litmus paper can be used to detect the acids or base.
    1. Litmus paper is an indicator to test whether it is acids or bases. When we put litmus paper into something that is acids the litmus paper would turn pink or red depend how high the acidic is. If the color of the litmus paper turn pink or red, which mean that it is an acidic. When we put litmus paper into something that is bases the litmus paper would turn blue to purple depend how low and high the basic is. If the color of the litmus paper turn blue or purple, which mean that it is a basic.
  4. Define acidity? How is it measured?
    1. Acidity is a level of acids that in the substance. We can measure the acidity base on the scale of pH. If the pH is from 0-7 it represent that it is acid, if the pH is from 8-14 it represent base.
  5. An unknown substance has a pH of 7.2. Is it an acid or base? Explain your answer.
    1. The unknown substance has a pH of 7.2 if not an acid or base, because it is neutralization. It is neutralization because a pH of 0-7 is acid 8-15 is base, which something 7-8 is neutralization. That substance is in between acid and base which we call it neutralization.
  6. If hydroelectric acid (HCl) reacts with the base lithium hydroxide (LiOH), what are the products of the reaction? Write a chemical equation for the reaction.
    1. When hydroelectric acid reacts with base, when they are place together, they reacts to neutralization the acid and base are producing the same properties. When the reaction neutralizes the acid relieve acid indigestion.
  7. Battery acids is stronger acid than lemon juice. Explain why?
    1. Well both of the substance are acidic, which the pH are lower than 7. But battery acids is stronger than lemon juice, because battery has lower pH and lemon juice has higher pH than battery. Which the lower pH the stronger acid it is.

So, I hope you learn something from the Q & A section, and enjoy reading others subjects. 

Carbon

       

In STEM class, this round, we had learned about the chemical periodic table. There are 7 horizontal rows, 17 groups with 118 elements in the periodic table. We had learned some of those elements, but for this round, we focus on Carbon and carbon cycles.

What is Carbon? Carbon is an element with a symbol of C and has 6 atomic number. Carbon is a nonmetal that making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 in the periodic table. Because carbon has valence electrons, it needs four more electrons to fill its outer level. It can achieve this by forming for covalent bonds. A covalent bond is a form between nonmetals. In a covalent bond, two atoms share a pair of electrons. By forming four covalent bonds, carbon shares four pairs of electrons, thus filling its outer energy level. A carbon atom can form bonds with other carbon atoms or with the atoms of other elements. Carbon often forms bonds with hydrogen. The compound represented in the figure is methane (CH4). The carbon atom in a methane molecule forms bonds with four hydrogen atoms. Carbon is a very special element because pure carbon can exist in different forms, depending on how its atoms are arranged. The forms include diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. All three forms exist as crystals, but they have different structures. Their different structures, thus give them different properties.

What is the carbon cycles? Carbon cycles is a cycle of photosynthesis through decay organism, respiration, combustion. Through those cycles is formed carbon dioxide. Why carbon cycles are important? All living things are made of carbon. Carbon is also a part of the ocean, air, and even rocks. Because the Earth is a dynamic place, carbon does not stay still. It is on the move. In the atmosphere, carbon is attached to some oxygen in a gas called carbon dioxide. Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food and grow. The carbon becomes part of the plant. Plants that die and are buried may turn into fossil fuels made of carbon like coal and oil over millions of years. When humans burn fossil fuels, most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas and traps heat in the atmosphere. Without it and other greenhouse gases, Earth would be a frozen world. But humans have burned so much fuel that there is about 30% more carbon dioxide in the air today than many years ago, and Earth is becoming a warmer place. Every small amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are important, but if we have too much carbon dioxide it could cause global warming.

Reducing burning fossil fuel to save the earth from global warming.

 

Chemical Bonding

In STEM class the second round of the year, we had learned about Chemical bonding. In chemical bonding, there are Covalent bonding, Ionic bonding, and Metallic bonding. For this writing, I would only describe about Covalent bonding and Ionic Bonding. 

Ionic Bond: All compounds form when atoms of different elements share or transfer electrons. In water, the atoms share electrons. In some other compounds, called ionic compounds, atoms transfer electrons. The electrons actually move from one atom to another. When atoms transfer electrons in this way, they become charged particles called ions. The ions are held together by ionic bonds. Ionic bond form only between metals and nonmetal. When it is Ionic bond an element will gain or lose the electron.

Covalent bond is the force of attraction that holds together two atoms that share a pair of electrons. The shared electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atoms. Covalent bonds form only between atoms of nonmetals. The two atoms may be the same or different elements. If the bonds form between atoms of different elements, a covalent compound forms. Covalent bonds form because they give atoms a more stable arrangement of electrons.

Atom

  Last we learned about rock, solar system, ocean, and more. This year I        learned about Physical Science, mass, matter, and atom. My teacher ( DA ) focus to teach us more about atom. Before I explain you what is atom, I show you different learning. 

                                                                      Atom

In the center of Matterville, there is a place called the Nucleus Arcade, where two members of the Atoms Family like to hang out. Perky Patty Proton, like her sisters, is quite large with a huge smile and eyes that sparkle (+). Patty is always happy and has a very positive personality. Nerdy Nelda Neutron is large like Patty, but she has a boring, flat mouth and eyes with zero expression (o). Her family is very apathetic and neutral about everything. Patty, Nelda, and their sisters spend all their time at the arcade.

Around the Nucleus Arcade, you will find a series of roadways that are used by another member of the Atoms Family, Enraged Elliott Electron. Elliott races madly around the Arcade on his bright red chrome- plated Harley-Davidson. He rides so fast that no one can be sure where he is at any time. Elliott is much smaller than Patty and Nelda and he is always angry because these bigger relatives will not let him in the Arcade. He has a frown on his face, eyes that are squinted with anger, and a very negative (-) attitude.

The first energy street can only hold only two Electron brothers. The second energy street, called the Energy Freeway, can hold 8 brothers. The third energy street, called the Energy Superhighway, can hold 18 of the brothers.

The morale of Matterville is stable as long as each negative Electron brother is balanced out by one positive Proton sister. The number of residents in Matterville depends on the Proton and Neutron families.

                                                             After read about atom family

So Atom is very small element that we can’t see with our regular eyes. It has 3 component such as : Proton, Neutron, and Electron. Proton stay in the nucleus with Neutron, and Electron can’t get inside the nucleus with Proton, and Neutron.  

That is just a small explanation about atom, but what I like is, beside learning toward about atom, I learned from activity that take human as an example. That is an fun way to study, and want next round teacher Da would the same learning style like this atom family.